Saturday, March 21, 2020

Great Inflation Essays - Reparations, Inflation, Weimar Culture

Great Inflation annon In late-1922 the German government were forced to ask the Allies for a moratorium on reparations payments; this was refused, and she then defaulted on shipments of both coal and timber to France. By January of the following year, French and Belgian troops had entered and occupied the Ruhr. The German people, perhaps for the first time since 1914, united behind their government, and passive resistance to the occupying troops was ordered. A government-funded strike began as thousands of workers marched out of their factories and steel works. The German economy, already under massive pressure, gave way. The huge cost of funding the strike in the Ruhr and the costs of imports to meet basic consumer needs were met by the familiar expedient of the printing pre sses. Note circulation increased rapidly, and by November 1923 had reached almost 92 trillion marks. With less than three per cent of government expenditure being met from income and with the cost of one dollar at four billion marks, Germany was in the th roes of economic and social chaos. Starvation became a reality for millions of people, despite a bumper cereal harvest, as shops reverted to the barter system. Farmers refused to accept the effectively worthless, banknotes in exchange for grain, and food quickly began to run short in the cities. Prices rose one trillion-fold from their pre-war level. More importantly, for the long-term political future of Germany, the middle and working classes saw their savings wiped out. These were, in essence, the pe ople who were later to become the hard-core of the Nazi vote. Economists will argue that runaway hyperinflation has two sources. Firstly, it arises through a fall in the foreign exchange value of a currency, when an adverse balance of payments reduces foreign investors demand for the currency. A falling exchange rat e increases the cost of imports and, therefore, the cost of living. Wages rise as workers try to maintain their standard of living, especially if previous institutional arrangements have linked wages to living costs. Firms paying higher wages raise the pr ice of the goods they sell, prices rise still further, the foreign exchange value of the currency falls still more, and the cycle continues. Secondly, it arises through a large budget deficit which no one believes will narrow in the future. Faced with the prospect of budget deficits for many years to come, the usual sources of credit available to the government decline to make further loans; the government can no longer borrow to cover the deficit between revenue and expenditure. The only alternative is t o print more and more banknotes. As government workers and suppliers present their bills to the Treasury, it pays them off with newly-printed pieces of paper. This puts more banknotes into the hands of the public and they then spend them. In Germany, as we have seen, the problem was that there were trillions of marks worth of paper currency in circulation. Prices could rise one thousand times between a worker being paid and his reaching the shops. A common analogy used is that if one could afford a bottl e of wine today, one should keep the empty bottle which would be worth more tomorrow than the full bottle was today. Eventually, the power to boost government spending by printing money goes. When the government can no longer gain, even in the short-term, a budgetary balance through inflation, the situation becomes so intense that stabilisation through a currency board, a new finance minister or a link to the gold standard is implemented, and reform can be successful. It was at this point that some sanity was injected into the German economy by the election of Gustav Stresemann. He called a halt to resistance in the Ru hr, and set out to stabilise the mark. Luther, Stresemanns Finance Minister, introduced the rentenmark the value of which was based on Germanys staple, rye, rather than gold. In fact the rentenmark represented a mortgage on Germanys land and industry, which could never be redeemed. It did not matter. The point was that the currency was stabilised and became exchangeable at a rate of one billion old marks to one new mark, and at the pre-war parity of 4.2 marks to the dollar. The new currency was quickl y accepted by the population, and food and consumer goods began to appear in the shops. The government could now attempt to regain budgetary control in a climate of low inflation. The Dawes Plan was brokered, and a sum of some 39 billion dollars

Thursday, March 5, 2020

French Indian War - French Indian War Aftermath

French Indian War - French Indian War Aftermath Previous: 1760-1763 - The Closing Campaigns | French Indian War/Seven Years War: Overview The Treaty of Paris Having abandoned Prussia, clearing the way to make a separate peace with France and Spain, the British entered into peace talks in 1762. After winning stunning victories around the globe, they vigorously debated which captured territories to keep as part of the negotiating process. This debate essentially distilled to an argument for keeping either Canada or islands in the West Indies. While the former was infinitely larger and provided security for Britains existing North American colonies, the latter produced sugar and other valuable trade commodities. Left with little to trade except Minorca, the French foreign minister, the Duc de Choiseul, found an unexpected ally in the head of the British government, Lord Bute. Believing that some territory had to be returned in order to restore a degree of balance of power, he did not press to complete the British victory at the negotiating table. By November 1762, Britain and France, with Spain also participating, completed work on a peace agreement dubbed the Treaty of Paris. As part of the agreement, the French ceded all of Canada to Britain and relinquished all claims to territory east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans. In addition, British subjects were guaranteed navigation rights over the length of the river. French fishing rights on the Grand Banks were confirmed and they were allowed to retain the two small islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon as commercial bases. To the south, the British maintained possession of St. Vincent, Dominica, Tobago, and Grenada, but returned Guadeloupe and Martinique to France. In Africa, Gorà ©e was restored to France, but Senegal was kept by the British. On the Indian Subcontinent, France was permitted to re-establish bases that had been founded before 1749, but for trading purposes only. In exchange, the British regained their trading posts in Sumatra. Also, the British agreed to allow former French subjects to continue practicing Roman Catholicism. A late entry into the war, Spain fared badly on the battlefield and in negotiations. Forced to cede their gains in Portugal, they were locked out of the Grand Banks fisheries. In addition, they were forced trade all of Florida to Britain for the return of Havana and the Philippines. This gave Britain control of the North American coast from Newfoundland to New Orleans. The Spanish were also required to acquiesce to a British commercial presence in Belize. As compensation for entering the war, France transferred Louisiana to Spain under the 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau. The Treaty of Hubertusburg Hard pressed in the wars final years, Frederick the Great and Prussia saw fortune shine on them when Russia exited the war following Empress Elizabeths death in early 1762. Able to concentrate his few remaining resources against Austria, he won battles at Burkersdorf and Freiburg. Cut off from British financial resources, Frederick accepted Austrian entreaties to begin peace talks in November 1762. These talks ultimately produced the Treaty of Hubertusburg which was signed on February 15, 1763. The terms of the treaty were an effective return to status quo ante bellum. As a result, Prussia retained the wealthy province of Silesia which it had gained by the1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and which had been a flashpoint for the current conflict. Though battered by the war, the result led to a newfound respect for Prussia and an acceptance of the nation as one of the great powers of Europe. The Road to Revolution Debate over the Treaty of Paris began in Parliament on December 9, 1762. Though not required for approval, Bute felt it a prudent political move as the treatys terms had unleashed a great deal of public outcry. The opposition to the treaty was led by his predecessors William Pitt and the Duke of Newcastle who felt that the terms were far too lenient and who criticized the governments abandonment of Prussia. Despite the vocal protest, the treaty passed the House of Commons by a vote of 319-64. As a result, the final document was officially signed on February 10, 1763. While triumphant, the war had badly stressed Britains finances plunging the nation into debt. In an effort to alleviate these financial burdens, the government in London began exploring various options for raising revenues and underwriting the cost of colonial defense. Among those pursued were a variety of proclamations and taxes for the North American colonies. Though a wave of goodwill for Britain existed in the colonies in the wake of the victory, it was quickly extinguished that fall with the Proclamation of 1763 which forbade American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. This was intended to stabilize relations with the Native American population, most of which had sided with France in the recent conflict, as well as reduce the cost of colonial defense. In America, the proclamation was met with outrage as many colonists had either purchased land west of the mountains or had received land grants for services rendered during the war. This initial anger was escalated by a series of new taxes including the Sugar Act (1764), Currency Act (1765), Stamp Act (1765), Townshend Acts (1767), and Tea Act (1773). Lacking a voice in Parliament, the colonists claimed taxation without representation, and protests and boycotts swept through the colonies. This widespread anger, coupled with a rise in liberalism and republicanism, placed the American colonies on the road to the American Revolution. Previous: 1760-1763 - The Closing Campaigns | French Indian War/Seven Years War: Overview

Monday, February 17, 2020

Rooms Devision Operations Management Assignment - 1

Rooms Devision Operations Management - Assignment Example Front office is the departments found in an office that have direct and first contact with the customers. The department is sub divided into various segments. They include the marketing department, the sales department, service department that we as well have the receptionists. It is very important to highlight that the front office is therefore the department that welcomes and receives the guests and visitors to the accommodation or rather hospitality facility. The staff shows their warm and good reception by meeting the guests, greeting them, and discussing with them in depth about the reservation arrangements. The check in systems as well as the check outs is as well factors that the department conducts as they get into the rooms and as they leave the rooms. The staff there again ensures the provision of the key to the guests and ensures that proper security is accorded to the guests, the department as well has accounting and communication department that passes information and se ttles accounts (Sue 2001). The front office offers very crucial services that are considered to be very crucial to the customers and the actions that are done have massive consequences to the accommodation facility. ... This department issues the keys to the guests and takes them top the various rooms that they have allocated to them (Michael 2010). Communication The front office department has the messengers and the communication facilities that facilitate the easier passing of information among the employees and the guests. Information among the staff could be on the consultation of the availability of the bed space and any other service needed that would be for the satisfaction of the customers taste and for their well being. The guests can as well use the communication department in making advance reservations and making of other service orders while they are in the premises (Sue 2001). Security It is important to note that the font office has the security department. The security department is concerned on the safety and security of the guests, the property of the guests, the staff employed by the accommodation or hotel organization and also the facilities that belong to the organization. Secur ity is another crucial factor that is quite sensitive and should always be put into consideration by the management of any hospitality firm (Ahmed 2012). Sales and Marketing It is very normal that any institution that is business oriented has its main target as making profit. For a business to make profit there must be proper sales and marketing done. This is therefore the reason for the creation of the sales and marketing department. The sales and marketing service that the accommodation organization does is based on various factors. The quality of the service that is offered by the organization is a very crucial factor that markets an organization. Sales and marketing service as well can

Monday, February 3, 2020

Cyber search Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Cyber search - Research Paper Example As extra letters are added to the list, the sequence is updated to reduce the words that have been entered. When the required word shows on the screen, the learner simply selects the word or letter to insert into the text written (Mueller, 1992). Whether through enhanced accountability or more determining support, the major goal of a teacher is to make continuous improvement in learning and teaching. To achieve this objective, a teacher reflection system should be designed and practiced with teacher learning and growth at his or her core, as opposed to being appended afterwards as an addition. Professional development is often linked to â€Å"results† of the reflection rather than recognized as an essential part of the reflection itself. Thus, reflection generates greater teaching effectiveness (Harris, Bruster, & Peterson, 2010). According to Naef, 2008, the learning environment should be more welcoming if the learners, staff and the faculty are assisted to improve their attitudes towards disabled individuals. This can be done using new information that may result in cognitive dissonance, which gives the chance for change in behavior. Through offering information regarding these individuals, training programs improve attitudes in several services such as in cafeterias, sports, and rehabilitation. Another important step is interpersonal relations with the disabled learners to create positive attitudes. The learning institutions should work together with the Local Special Education Advisory institutions to develop a culture of mutual respect, equal opportunities, and understanding for all learners, inclusive of the disabled (Scot & Lawson, 2002). For instance, a disability awareness head at each school should arrange special events to spread awareness and make out the achievements and differences of all learners throughout history and in the community in particular, so that each learner is appreciated as a useful member. Naef, k. (2008). Yong Adult

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Structure and Uses of Ibuprofen

Structure and Uses of Ibuprofen Abstract The Controlled-release dosage forms are formulated to release the drugs active ingredient gradually and predictably over an extended period of time that is something like 12 to 24 hour period. â€Å"These formulations potentially provide for greater effectiveness in the treatment of chronic conditions through more consistent delivery of the medication; reduced side effects; greater convenience; and higher levels of patient compliance due to a simplified dosage schedule, compared with those of immediate-release drugs†. Ibuprofen is a colourless, crystalline solid which is having a low soluble limits in water but it is having a better solublity in most organic solvents. â€Å"The main aim of this work is control the release of drug by encapsulating it in to coating materials like fattyacids (palmiticacid and pluronic F-127). Encapsulating of ibuprofen by using freeze drying technique in this technique Ibuprofen is encapsulated in to the fattyacid and pluronic (F127), these coating materials have the property of controlling the release of drug when the coated drug is entered in to the body the coating materials which surrounded to the drug is control the release of drug†. The release of encapsulated ibuprofen is determined by Flow through dissolution and UV- visible spectroscopy. INTRODUCTION 1. IBUPROFEN Ibuprofen is a colourless, crystalline solid which is having a very very low solubility limits I case of water but it is having comparabelly better soluble limits in case of organic solvents. The synthesis of ibuprofen was originally reported in 1964 from Ï -isobutyl- lacetophen but the drug was not marketed in the United States until 1974 despite the fact that it had been available for several years in Europe. â€Å"It was the indomethacin and was immediately accepted in therapy. Its success was a factor in the introduction of many new agents in the 1970s. Ibuprofen was the first aryl propionic acid derivative to be marketed in the United States†. This chemical class currently comprises of the largest group of NSAIDs under investigation with as many as 25 derivatives in various stages of development. â€Å"It recently became the first prescription NSAIA to become available as an over the counter analgesic in almost 30 years and is avialble under a number of trade names, It is also sometimes known as: Advil, Anadin Ibuprofen, Arthrofen, Brufen, Retard, Cuprofen, Fenbid; Galprofen, Hedex Ibuprofen, Ibufem; Librofem; Mandafen; Manorfen; Migrafen; Motrin; Nurofen; Obifen; Relcofen perhaps being among the more widely used. The continuing popularity of ibuprofen is evidenced by the appearance 200 prescription drugs in the United States†. IUPAC name : 2-[4-(2-methylpropyl) phenyl] propanoacid, Formula : C13H18O2, Molecular mass : 206.28, Melting point : 76  °C (1. 69  °F) Bioavailability : 49-73, Protein binding : 99%, Metabolism : Hepatic, Half life : 1.8-2 hours, Excretion : Renal. 1.1 Structure of Ibuprofen Structure of IBUPROFEN Ibuprofen is a white powder belonging to the propionic acid derivatives, with a melting point of 74 77 ° C. It is only slightly soluble in water but readily soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol. It is a chiral compound; racemic Ibuprofen is usually used, although only one form is active medicinally. â€Å"Ibuprofen is made up of covalently-bonded carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. 2 CH3 molecules are single-bonded to a CH molecule The CH molecule is bonded to a carbon atom that forms a 6-sided ring of carbon atoms†. Another CH molecule is single-bonded to a carbon atom on the other side of the ring. Inside the ring there are 3 double bonds between carbon atoms. Then another CH3 molecule and a COOH molecule are both single bonded to the CH molecule on the right. Because it is nonsteroidal, it is widely used as it does not upset the hormonal balance in the body. Its anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain relieving) and antipyretic (fever reducing) actions are co moderate pain such as headache, toothache, and migraine as well as symptoms of fever. 1.2 Stereochemistry Ibuprofen contains a chiral carbon in the ∞ position of the propionate moiety. As such, there are two possible enantiomers of ibuprofen, with the potential for different biological effects and metabolism for each enantiomer. Indeed it was found that (S)(+)- ibuprofen (dexibuprofen) was the active form both in vitro and in vivo, because of this reason the ibuprofen is marketed as a single enantiomer as occurs with naproxen and other NSAIDs. And the in vivo experiments revealed the existence of an Isomerase (2-arylpropionylco-A epimerase) which converted (R) -ibuprofen to the active (S)-enantiomer .Most of the ibuprofen formulations are marketed as racemic mixtures. Racemic ibuprofen is an important NSAID used in the treatment of pain and inflammation in a variety of musculoskeletal rheumatic disorders. 1.3 Synthesis â€Å"There have been many commercial and laboratory publications for the synthesis of Ibuprofen. Two of the most popular ways to obtain Ibuprofen are the Boot process and the Hoechst process. The Boot process is an older commercial process developed by the Boot Pure Drug Company, and the Hoechst process is a newer process developed by the Hoechst Company. Most of these routes to Ibuprofen begin with isobutyl benzene and use Friedel-Crafts acylation. The Boot process requires six steps, while the Hoechst process, with the assistance of catalysts, is completed in only three steps†. Cheminor Drugs have developed a process for an improved version of ibuprofen based on chiral synthesis. The move is significant given that pure S-Ibuprofen (the active form of ibuprofen) could near halve the regular ibuprofen dosage, besides improving the side-effect profile. However the human body can convert the inactive (R) form into the (S) form, so eventually 100% of the ibuprofen taken becomes active. The process discovered by Cheminor is therefore unlikely to have commercial significance. [6] 1.4 Mechanism of action: â€Å"Ibuprofen is an NSAID which is believed to work through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), thus inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. There are at least 2 variants of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2). Ibuprofen inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2. It appears that its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activity is achieved principally through COX-2 inhibition; whereas COX-1 inhibition is responsible for its unwanted effects on platelet aggregation and the GI mucosa†. The role of the individual COX isoforms in the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and gastric damage effects of NSAIDs is uncertain and different compounds cause different degrees of analgesia and gastric damage. 1.5 Absorption and metabolism: Ibuprofen is quite rapidly absorbed when it is admistered orally we can witness the peak plasma levels are obtained withan 2hours time.† As with most of these acidic NSAIDs , ibuprofen(pka=4.43) is extensively bound to the plasma proteins(99%) and will interact with other acidic drugs which are protein bound. Metabolism occur rapidly and the drug is nearly completely excreted in the urine as UN changed drug and oxidative metabolites with in 24 hrs following administration†. Metabolism involves primarily ω-1and ω-2 oxidation of the Ï -iso butyl side chain, followed by alcohol oxidation of the primary alcohol resulting from the ω-oxidation to the corresponding carboxylic acid. All metabolites are essentially in active. When Ibuprofen id administered as the individual enantiomers, the major metabolites isolated are the (+)-isomers regardless of the configuration of the administered enantiomer.intrestingley, the (R)(-)-enantiomer is inverted to the (S)-(+)-enant iomer in vivo, accounting for the observation that the two enantiomers are bioequivalent In vivo. 1.6 Ibuprofen uses: Ibuprofen is used to relief the symptoms of a wide range of illnesses such as headaches, backache, period pain, dental pain, neuralgia, rheumatic pain, muscular pain, migraine, cold and flu symptoms and arthritis. Recently evidence has emerged suggesting that ibuprofen is effective in the treatment of Alzheimers disease. 1.7 Ibuprofen side effects Ibuprofen is regarded as the first choice drug in its class due to the low number of side effects and complications associated with it. The most frequent type of adverse reaction occurring with ibuprofen is gastrointestinal. In clinical trials, the percentage of patients reporting one or more gastrointestinal complaints ranged from 4% to 16%. Common Side Effects: stomach upset or irritation Infrequent Side Effects: nausea and/or vomiting, constipation, diarrhoea Rare Side Effects: skin irritations, drowsiness, gastrointestinal bleeding Ibuprofen has the lowest incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects, reactions of all the non selective NSAIDS. However this only holds true in case of lower doses of ibuprofen, so over the counter preparation of ibuprofen are generally labelled to advise a maximum daily dose of 1,200 mg. 1.8 Risks involved 1.8.1 Cardiovascular Risk: Along with several other NSAIDs, ibuprofen has been implicated in elevating the risk of myocardial infarction, particularly among those chronically using high doses. 1.8.2 Risks in Pregnancy: Ibuprofen consumption should be avoided in late pregnancy due to risk of premature closure of the ducts arteries in the fetal heart. 1.8.3 Risks in Inflammatory Bowel Disease â€Å"Ibuprofen should not be used regularly in individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Diseas (IBD-Crohns Disease and Ulcerative Colitis)due to its ability to cause gastric bleeding and form ulceration in the gastric lining. Drugs such as Advil should be avoided in persons afflicted with IBD. Pain relievers such as Tylenol (containing acetaminophen) or drugs containing Codeine (which slows down bowel activity) are safer methods than Ibuprofen for pain relief in IBD†. Ibuprofen is also known to cause worsening of IBD during times of a flare-up, thus should be avoided completely. 1.8.4Drug-Drug Interactions Ibuprofen is associated with several suspected or other probable interactions that can affect the action of other drugs .Ibuprofen leads to the increased levels of lithium leading to the reduction of lithium excretion from the kidneys, and this may lead to lithium toxicity. Ibuprofen may lead to the lowering of blood pressure because prostaglandins play an important role in reducing the blood pressure. Ibuprofen is used in combination with amino glycosides for e.g.: The blood levels of gentamycin may increase presumably because the elimination of amino glycosides from the body is reduced and may lead to amino glycoside side effect. 1.9. Absorption and Metabolism Ibuprofen is rapidly absorbed on oral administration with peak plasma levels being generally attained with in 2hrs. As with most of these acidic NSAIDs , ibuprofen(pka=4.43) is extensively bound to the plasma proteins(99%) and will interact with other acidic drugs which are protein bound. Metabolism involves primarily ω-1and ω-2 oxidation of the Ï -iso butyl side chain, followed by alcohol oxidation of the primary alcohol resulting from the ω-oxidation to the corresponding carboxylic acid. All the metabolites are essentially inactive. The (R)(-)-enantiomer is inverted to the (S)-(+)-enantiomer in vivo, accounting for the observation that the two enantiomers are bioequivalent In vivo. 1.9 Mechanism of Action Ibuprofen is an NSAID which is believed to work through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), thus inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. Prostaglandins are produced in response to injury or certain diseases 2 variants of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2). Ibuprofen inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2. It appears that its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activity is achieved principally through COX-2 inhibition; whereas COX-1 inhibition is responsible for its unwanted effects on platelet aggregation and the GI mucosa. The role of the individual COX Isoforms in the Analgesic, Antiinflammatory, and the Gastric damage and affects of NSAIDs is uncertain and different degrees of Analgesia and Gastric damage occur. 1.10 Controlled Release Mechanisms Controlled release implies regulation of the delivery of a a drug by a device the control is aimed at delivering the drug at a specific rate for a definite period of time independent of the local environments. Controlled release may also incorporate methods of promote localization of drug at an active site. Site specific and targeted delivery systems are the descriptive term used to denote this type of control. The periods of delivery are much longer than in case of sustained release and may vary from days to years. Controlled release mechanism is designed to release the drug in vivo according to predictable rates that can be verified by in-vitro measurements. Controlled release technology implies a quantities understanding of the physic chemical mechanism of drug availability to the extent that the dosage form release rate can be specified. Potential development s and new approaches to oral controlled release drug delivery systems, intragastric floating tablets, Trans mucosal tablets and micro porous membrane coated tablets . An example of application to the controlled release technology to dosage form design consists of a polymer matrix in which a drug containing solution is dispersed in the form of micro cells. The barrier permeability and the drug solubility in the dispersed solution are variables that can be adjusted to provide predictable drug release rates. All pharmaceutical dosage forms should be controlled release formulations -with rate specified and bioavailability assured by the drug delivery design. There are three types of controlled release mechanisms: Ø Diffusion Ø Swelling Ø Degradation 2 .Palmitic acid Palmitic acid,CH3(CH2)14COOH or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals and plants. As its name indicates, it is a major component of the oil from palm trees (palm oil and palm kernel oil). Palmitate is a term for the salts or esters of palmitic acid. The palmitate anion is the observed form of palmitic acid at physiological pH. CAS number 57-10-3 Molecular formula C16H32O2 Molar mass 256.42 g/mol Appearance White crystals Density 0.853 g/cm3 at 62  °C Melting point 63-64  °C Boiling point 351-352  °C[2] 215  °C at 15 mmHg Solubility in water Insoluble 2.1 Biochemistry â€Å"Palmitic acid is the first fatty acid produced during lipogenesis (fatty acid synthesis) and from which longer fatty acids can be produced. Palmitate negatively feeds back on acetyl- CoA carboxyl(ACC) which is responsible for converting acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA which is used to add to the growing acyl chain, thus preventing further palmitate generation. Reduction of palmitic acid yields cetyl alcohol†. 2.2 Uses Derivatives of palmitic acid were used in combination with naphtha during World War II to produce napalm (aluminum naphthenate and aluminum palmitate). [6] â€Å"The World Health Organization claims there is convincing evidence that dietary intake of palmitic acid increases risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. However, possibly less-disinterested studies have shown no ill effect, or even a favorable effect, of dietary consumption of palmitic acid on blood lipids and cardiovascular disease, so that the WHO finding may be deemed controversial.[8] However, another study showed that palmitic acid has no hypercholesterolaemic effect if intake of linoleic acid is greater than 4.5% of energy. On the other hand, it was shown that, if the diet contains trans fatty acids, the health effects are negative, causing an LDL cholesterol increase and HDL cholesterol decrease†. â€Å"Recently, a long-acting anti-psychotic medication, paliperidone palmitate (marketed as INVEGA Sustenna), used in the treatment of schizophrenia, has been synthesized using the oily palmitate ester as a long-acting release carrier medium when injected intramuscularly. The underlying method of drug delivery is similar to that used with decanoic acid to deliver long-acting depot medication, in particular, neuroleptics such as haloperidol decanoate†. 3 .Pluronic F-127 Pluronic F127 is a difunctional block copolymer surfactant terminating in primary hydroxyl groups. A non-ionic surfactant that is 100% active and relatively nontoxic. 3.1 Specifications Cloud point (10% aqueous)†¦.. >100 °C Color, APHA †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 120 max. Water, weight %†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Cast Solid-0.4 max. Prill/Micropastille-0.75 max. pH (2.5% aqueous)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 6.0 7.0 3.2 Typical physical properties Form†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Cast solid /Prill /Micropastille Average molecular weight†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦ 12600 Specific gravity, 77 °/25 °C†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 1.05 Viscosity, cps at 77 °C †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3100 Melt Point†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 56 °C Cloud point (1% aqueous)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦ >100 °C Foam height (Ross Miles, 0.1% aqueous at 50 °C)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 40 mm Surface tension (0.1% aqueous)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 41 dynes/cm at25 °C HLB†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 18 − 23 Solubility in water at 25 °C†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. >10% Wetting, Draves Sink Time (3-gm hook, 0.1% aqueous at 25 °C)†¦.. >360 seconds â€Å"Pluronicf-127 is polymer with an additional property in aqueous solution which will covert from its liquid state to that of a non fluid hydrogel, which is a main characteristic of the protein drug delivery system†.Pluronic-f127 is also considered as an Thermo Reversible Gelatine of the co-polymer f127 whose generic name is 407 in water makes it an unique candidate for Microencapsulaton application â€Å"Pluronic-f127 is a surfactant molecule with highly beneficial characteristics that makes it a strong candidate for protein drug delivery system. Its interaction with the polypeptides is most likely of minimisation of potential energy by mutual exclusion of hydrophobic residues from the aqueous medium as was predicted by computer probing and verified by fluorescent probing†. 4. Microencapsulation This is a process by which very tiny droplets or particles of liquid or solid material are surrounded or coated with a continuous film of polymeric material. These micro-capsules have a number of benefits such as converting liquids to solids, separating reactive compounds, providing environmental protection, improved material handling properties. Active materials are then encapsulated in micron-sized capsules of barrier polymers (gelatin, plastic, wax, ). â€Å"The reasons for micro encapsulation are countless. In some cases, the core must be isolated from its surroundings, as in isolating vitamins from the deteriorating effects of oxygen, retarding evaporation of a volatile core, improving the handling properties of a sticky material, or isolating a reactive core from chemical attack. In other cases, the objective is not to isolate the core completely but to control the rate at which it leaves the microcapsule, as in the controlled release of drugs or pesticides†. The problem may be as simple as masking the taste or odour of the core, or as complex as increasing the selectivity of an adsorption or extraction. 4.1 Micro encapsulation techniques: *Physical methods of encapsulation > Rotary disk atomization > Fluid bed coating > Stationary nozzle co extrusion > Centrifugal head co extrusion > Submerged nozzle co extrusion > Spray drying > Pan coating * Chemical methods of encapsulation > Phase separation > Solvent evaporation > Solvent extraction > Interfacial polymerization > Simple and complex coacervation > In-situ polymerization > Liposome technology * Shell materials used for en capsulation > Proteins > Polysaccharides > Starches > waxes > Fats > Natural and synthetic polymers > Resins 4.2 Chemicals used in this experiment: Drug: IBUPROFEN Coating polymer: pvp and pluronic (f77) Phosphate buffer (7.4) Composition of phosphate buffer Ø Potassium chloride Ø Sodium chloride Ø Potassium di hydro ortho phosphate Sodium di hydro ortho phosphate 6. Freeze Drying: Freeze-drying (also known as lyophilisation or cry desiccation) is a dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material or make the material more convenient for transport. Freeze-drying works by freezing the material and then reducing the surrounding pressure and adding enough heat to allow the frozen water in the material to sublime directly from the solid phase to gas. There are several stages involved in the freeze drying process 6.1 Freezing stage: â€Å" The freezing process consists of freezing the material. In a lab, this is often done by placing the material in a freeze-drying flask and rotating the flask in a bath, called a shell freezer, which is cooled by mechanical refrigeration, dry ice and methanol, or liquid nitrogen. On a larger-scale, freezing is usually done using a freeze-drying machine. In this step, it is important to cool the material below its eutectic point, the lowest temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of the material can coexist. This ensures that sublimation rather than melting will occur in the following steps. Larger crystals are easier to freeze-dry. To produce larger crystals, the product should be frozen slowly or can be cycled up and down in temperature. This cycling process is called annealing. However, in the case of food, or objects with formerly-living cells, large ice crystals will break the cell walls (discovered byClarence Birdseye)†. Usually, the freezing temperatures ar e between -50  °C and -80  °C. The freezing phase is the most critical in the whole freeze-drying process, because the product can be spoiled if badly done. Amorphous (glassy) materials do not have an eutectic point, but do have a critical point, below which the product must be maintained to prevent melt-back or collapse during primary and secondary drying. 6.2 Primary drying: â€Å" Primary drying can reduce the moisture content of a freeze dried solid to around 0.5%. Further reduction can be effected by secondary drying. During the primary drying, the latent heat of sublimation must be provided and the vapour removed. enough heat is supplied to the material for the water to sublimate In this initial drying phase, about 95% of the water in the material is sublimated. This phase may be slow (can be several days in the industry), because, if too much heat is added, the materials structure could be altered†. 6.3 Secondary drying: The removal of residual moisture at the end o primary drying is performed by raising the temperature of the solid to as high as 50 °C or 60 °C. A high temperature is permissible for many materials because the small amount of moisture remaining is not sufficient to cause spoilage 6.4 Freeze drying advantages: Drying takes place at very low temperatures, so that enzyme action is inhibited and chemical decomposition, particularly hydrolysis, is minimised. The solution is frozen such that the final dry product is a net work of solid occupying the same volume as the original solution. Thus the product is light and porous. The porous form of the product gives ready solubility. There is no concentration of the solution prior to drying. Hence, salts do not concentrate and denature proteins, as occurs with other drying methods. As the process takes place under high vacuum there is little contact with air, and oxidation is minimized. 6.5 Freeze drying disadvantages: The porosity, ready solubility and complete dryness yield a very hygroscopic product. Unless products are dried in their final container and sealed in situ, packaging requires special conditions. The process is very slow and uses complicated plant, which is very expensive. It is not a general method of drying, therefore, but is limited to certain types of valuable products which, because of their heat sensitivity, cannot be dried by any other means. 7 Apparatus used for the experiment : 7.1 Uv_visible spectroscopy: â€Å" A diagram of the components of a typical spectrometer is shown in the following diagram. The functioning of this instrument is relatively straightforward. A beam of light from a visible and/or UV light source (colored red) is separated into its component wavelengths by a prism or diffraction grating. Each monochromatic (single wavelength) beam in turn is split into two equal intensity beams by a half-mirrored device†. One beam, the sample beam (colored magenta), passes through a small transparent container (cuvette) containing a solution of the compound being studied in a transparent solvent. The other beam, the reference (colored blue), passes through an identical cuvette containing only the solvent. The intensities of these light beams are then measured by electronic detectors and compared. The intensity of the reference beam, which should have suffered little or no light absorption, is defined as I0. The intensity ofthe sample beam is defined as I. Over a short perio d of time, the spectrometer automatically scans all the component wavelengths in the manner described. The ultraviolet (UV) region scanned is normally from 200 to 400 nm, and the visible portion is from 400 to 800 nm. [11] Components of UV_ visible spectroscopy 7.2 Instrumentation: Source of light: The best source of light that which is more stable more intense and which gives range of spectrum from 180-360nm.The different sources available are: Hydrogen discharge lamp:It is more stable robust and widely used.It gives radiation from 120-350nm.The lamp consist of hydrogen under pressure. Deuterium lamp: It is similar to hydrogen discharge lamp, but filled with deuterium in the place of hydrogen.It offers 3-5 times more intensity than other types.This is most widely used but expensive. Xenon discharge lamp: In this lamp, xenon at 10-30 atmospheric pressure is filled in and has two tungsten electrodes. The intensity is greater than hydrogen discharge lamp. Mercury arc: This contains mercury vapour and offers bands which are sharp.The spectrum is not continuous. Monochromaters: â€Å"Grating monochromaters are used, filters and prism monochromaters are not used because of low resolution.On the other hand gratings provide a band pass of 0.4 to 2nm.Hence they are more widely used incase of expensive spectrophotometers.The mirrors ,gratings are made up of quartz since glass absorbs uv radiation from 200-300nm.Mirrors are front surfaced to prevent absorption of radiation†. Sample Cells: â€Å"The design of sample cells used is similar to that used in colorimetry expect that it is made up of quartz. Quartz cells only must be used in uv spectroscopy since glass cells will absorb uv radiation.The pathlength of the cells are 10mm or 1cm†. Solvents: â€Å"solvent plays an important role in uv spectra, since compound peak could be obscured by solvent peak.Hence the solvent for a sample is selected in such a way that solvent neither absorbs in the region of measurement nor affects the absorption of the sample†. Detectors: Although any one of the detectors used in colorimetry can be used, photomultiplier tubes are mainly used, since the cost of such UV spectrophotometers are high and more accurate measurements are to be made. Single beam and double beam UV spectrophotometers are used. 7.3.Beers law (related to concentration of absorbing species): Beers law states that the intensity of beam of monochromatic light decreases exponentially with increase in the concentration of absorbing species arithmetically. Lamberts law (related to thickness/ path length of absorbing species): Lamberts law states that the rate of decrease of intensity (monochromatic light) with the thickness of the medium is directly proportional to the intensity of incident light. Beer-Lambert Law: The beer lamberts law states that absorbance of a solution is directly proportionally to the concentration of the solution. A = −log_{10}(I/I_0) = epsiloncdot ccdot L, The beer-lambert law is useful for characterizing of the compounds but does not hold as a universal relationship for the concentration and absorption of all species. Applications: It is mainly used in the detection of impurities. It is used in the structure elucidation of organic compounds. And also used in the analysis of organic compounds. Detrmination of molecular weight. Determination of dissociation constant of acids and bases. 7.4 Flow through dissolution apparatus: â€Å"The flow-through cell is a suitable method for dissolution studies of poorly soluble drugs. The dissolution can be influenced by changing parameters in the apparatus and by changing the physical properties of the drug and the medium used. In this study the dissolution of ibuprofen was examined†. Results showed that a smaller particle size gave a higher dissolution rate. With a dose of 50mg a higher percent dissolved was obtained compared to a dose of 100mg. However, a larger mass (mg) was dissolved when the dose of 100mg was used. When using a cell diameter of 12mm instead of a cell diameter of 22.6mm the dissolution rate increased. A larger dissolution rate was also obtained when the flow of the medium was increased. Finally the effect of changing medium was examined. Results showed that by including a surfactant to the medium a drastic increase of the dissolution rate was obtained. The flow-through cell has since the 90s been used as an alternative method for dissolution studies . It has some advantages over previous dissolution methods. It is easier to retain sink condition, i.e. to keep a sufficiently low concentration in the remaining solution. This makes it possible to keep a constant diving force (=concentration difference) the whole time during the release experiment. The concentration should not exceed one third of the saturated. The medium can be changed automatically during the study which is very useful in in vitro in vivo studies . Previous studies have showed the importance of deaeration of the dissolution medium, how the packing of the cell can influence the dissolution and that the results obtained with the flow-through cell are more reproducible than obtained with previous methods as dissolution baths In this study the dissolution of ibuprofen was examined in the flow-through cell. Six parameters were of interest: The packing of the cell The particle size of the drug The dose The volume flow of the medium through the cell The cell diameter The medium Desirable results were good reproducibility, i.e. small standard deviation between tests and cells, and to maintain sink condition during the experiment. Advantages : Laminar flow characteristics over a wide range of solvent flow rates Infinite sink ideal for low solubility drugs Differential rather than cumulative time profile o

Saturday, January 18, 2020

A history of African American slaves Essay

But as mentioned, may also argue for the more positive portrayal of John Brown in writings and media. They believe that negative portrayal of John Brown gives an unfair interpretation of his history. They argue that many of the writers who have put John Brown in a bad light let their writings be tainted with bias, and so some of them veered away from impartial interpretation of facts that surround Brown. Many argue that John Brown, as a human being, is a product of his past, and how he was shaped by his society. These people say that as much as you can’t blame John Brown like you can’t fully blame a suicide bomber for dying and killing for his convictions and beliefs. He was one of those who viewed society through a revolutionary lens, only that he let his eyes go awry by choosing violent methods. It could also be that he was pressured into going through violent acts because he wanted immediate change, and saw that relatively peaceful methods like passing legislations were not effecting these changes fast enough. It can be recalled that he once tried to use negotiation to settle the prices and terms in the wool industry, yet to no avail. Several factors like this could have led to this kind of mindset that he had. Some people view him as a hero, as proved by many edifices and statues built in his honor. For some people, especially the African-Americans, his motives were enough to proclaim him as a hero and a martyr for the nation. This point proves that personal history of the race or culture greatly affects the lens through which people look at things in the environment. Since the ancestors of these people were the ones defended by Brown, they feel indebted to him in some way. Without his armed action against the southerners, then major recognition of their peoples’ freedom wouldn’t have occurred. The people that John Brown tried to save were the ones who look up to him as a liberator still. From when he was alive to when he was executed, the public viewed him as both a violent rogue and a patriot. However multifaceted the views of John Brown’s character may be, it is important that we ground our views on the facts and truths found in history. There are many things we have to consider about his personality, character and motivations, and these things are needed to form a good opinion and view of Brown. CONCLUSION John Brown supported ideologies that were unaccepted during his time, and used methods that were unacceptable both when he lived and after this period. In his time, he garnered both the dissent of both slavery supporters and pacifist abolitionists, and the support of some abolitionists. The presence of multiple opinions was also evident even after his death. His image still acquires the same two sides of public opinion no matter how times have changed. John Brown is an American historical figure whose image contains many facets to it because people from different times had different â€Å"lenses† or factors like values systems, cultural and social backgrounds to view his life with. These factors influence how people form opinions and views. Whatever â€Å"lens† we may have and use in viewing John Brown’s image or any other thing outside of ourselves, it is important that we remain accurate and faithful to truth and fact as much as possible. BIBLIOGRAPHY Berlin, Ira. Generations of Captivity: A History of African American Slaves.United States of America: President and Fellows of Harvard College , 2003. Catterall, Helen T. Judicial Cases Concerning Slavery and the Negro. New York: Octagon Books, 1968. â€Å"Civil War History†. Southernhistory. net. http://www. southernhistory. net/modules. php? op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=9406. (accessed April 9, 2009) Chowder, Ken. The Father of American Terrorism. New York: American Heritage, 2002. DeCaro Jr. , Louis A. â€Å"People’s Ally, White People’s Bogeyman: A John Brown Story† in Andrew Taylor and Eldrid Herrington (editors), The Afterlife of John Brown. 2005 DeCaro Jr. , Louis A. John Brown–The Cost of Freedom: Selections from His Life & Letters. 2007. Fried, Albert. John Brown’s Journey: Notes & Reflections on His America and Mine. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1978. Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Random House, Inc. , 1974. Genovese, Eugene D. The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society of the Slave South. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1989. Genovese, Eugene D. , and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Fruits of Merchant Capital: Slavery and Bourgeois Property in the Rise and Expansion of Capitalism. England: Oxford University Press, 1983. â€Å"John Brown†. Spartacus Educational. http://www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/USASbrown. html (accessed April 9, 2009) Kolchin, Peter. American Slavery, 1619-1877. Canada: HarperCollins Canada Ltd. , 1994. Olsen, Otto H. â€Å"Historians and the Extent of Slave Ownership in the Southern United States†. Southernhistory. net http://www. southernhistory. net/modules. php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=9406 (accessed April 9, 2009) Partyka, Jennifer. â€Å"Brown, John†. The Pennsylvania Center for the Book. http://pabook. libraries. psu. edu/palitmap/bios/Brown__John. html (accessed April 9, 2009). Reynolds, David S. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Right. New York: Vintage Books, 2005. Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850. Norwood, Mass. , 1906. â€Å"Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860†. The Library of Congress. http://lcweb2. loc. gov/ammem/sthtml/sthome. html (accessed April 9, 2009).

Friday, January 10, 2020

Short Article Reveals the Undeniable Facts About Narrative Descriptive Essay Samples and How It Can Affect You

Short Article Reveals the Undeniable Facts About Narrative Descriptive Essay Samples and How It Can Affect You Lies You've Been Told About Narrative Descriptive Essay Samples You don't want your reader picking up the dictionary every 2 seconds to look at the significance of an intricate word thereby missing from the attractiveness of the job. The usage of hyperbole creates an exaggeration and on occasion a comic relief. There are various kinds of words. Sarcasm is an intriguing technique only the most suitable selection of words can bring to life. The conclusion is just as vital as the other sections. You may also consider introducing the experience in the very first paragraph but delaying your expression of the importance of the experience until the close of the essay. Also, it's the last phase of the writing. By comparison, the very first person has been frowned upon in academic writing. Every time that you are requested to tell a story you're predicted to develop new, fresh ideas. With good work of imagination, it's quite easy to produce plot ideas. You simply sit and can't come up with the concept of what things to write. The principal idea of all of the criticism is to give an opinion both of positive or negative implication. Subsequently, essay was defined in a number of ways. Essays are available in many forms. The essay defines a particular perspective. Ultimately, always make certain to edit your own personal narrative essay before you submit it! Narratives are geared toward telling about yourself. Narrative essays serve broad array of purposes. They are actually pretty fun to write. Completing a paper may be a time-consuming practice. Students are requested to explain, comment on, or assess a subject of study in the shape of an essay. You only ought to describe the events and other details that may help your reader get a complete comprehension of your idea. When you disclose information at the start, your audience will get to realize the central idea deeper. Try to keep in mind that the information that you present is the sole information your readers have about the experiences. Essentially, a plot is all the big events of a story working with each other to give it a point. Consider the sequence of events and don't forget, no detail is too tiny. Remember you should use vivid and specific particulars. The beginning details offer a framework to turn your storytelling powerful and meaningful. Narrative Descriptive Essay Samples - What Is It? When you compose a narrative essay, you're telling a story. Telling a story isn't always simple and telling a terrific story is even harder. All the details relate to the principal point the writer is trying to make. The writer is religious and her very best friend died. Narrative essays are told from a defined point of view, frequently the author's, therefore there's feeling together with specific and frequently sensory details given to find the reader involved with the elements and sequence of the story. The thought of a compelling first-person narration isn't the just one. Try to remember that although the major part of a narrative is the story, details have to be carefully selected to support, explain, and boost the story. One of the primary determinants of whether or not a story will be engaging to its readers is the caliber of detail given by the author. The Argument About Narrative Descriptive Essay Samples The principal purpose is to return permanently to regular life and standard well-being. Make certain you didn't miss any vital points. Students should determine the method by which the story begins, what the results are in the middle (where the majority of the action will take place) and the way the story ends.